Jagiellonians Timeline

1375 Jadwiga of Anjou (d. 1399) crowned of Poland (October)
1385 Pagan prince Jogaila of Lithuania (d. 1434) signs the Treaty of Krevo, promising Catholic baptism and joining of Lithuania to Poland in exchange for marrying Jadwiga Anjou (d. 1399) (14 August)
1386 Jogaila baptized at Cracow (15 February), and is married to Jadwiga Anjou and crowned King of Poland (4 March); Jogaila also declares himself supreme duke (supremus dux) of Lithuania and appoints his brother, Skirgaila (d. 1394), as grand duke (magnus dux)
1387 Jogaila charters a cathedral at Vilnius, initiating the conversion of the Lithuanians to Catholicism (17 February)
1399 Death of Jadwiga Anjou without surviving issue, forcing Jogaila to renegotiate his new status as sole king with the Polish electors
1410 Polish armies under King Jogaila defeat the knights of the Teutonic Order at Tannenberg/Grunwald and slay the Grandmaster in battle, compelling the Order to recognize Polish supremacy (15 July)
1416 Death of Anna of Cilli, second wife of King Jogaila of Poland, without issue, leaving him once again without any blood link to the previous ruling dynasty, the Piasts
1422 Marriage of Jogaila to Sophia of Holshany (d. 1461), a Lithuanian noblewoman
1424 Birth of Jogaila’s first son, Ladislaus, and start of the king’s campaign to have the Polish Diet () recognise his issue as heirs to the Polish throne
1427 Campaign by anti-Jagiellonian opposition in Poland to have Jogaila’s sons, Ladislaus (d. 1444) and Casimir IV (d. 1492), declared illegitimate
1434 Death of Jogaila and election of his elder son, Ladislaus Jagiellon (d. 1444), as king of Poland

Casimir IV Jagiellon, younger son of Jogaila, elected Grand Duke of Lithuania; King Ladislaus Jagiellon (d. 1444), King of Poland, invited to the Hungarian throne and crowned (17 July), but the throne is contested by supporters of the infant Ladislaus ‘the Posthumous’ (d. 1457), son of Albert V Habsburg, who is also crowned King of Hungary

1444 Ladislaus Jagiellon slain at the Battle of Varna while fighting against the Ottomans (10 November)
1447 Casimir IV Jagiellon crowned King of Poland, succeeding his elder brother (25 June)
1454 Danzig and other rebellious Prussian towns accept the rule of Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland, rather than the Teutonic Order, starting the Thirteen Years’ War between Teutonic Order and Poland; death of Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki, who for decades had been the leading opponent of the Jagiellonians in Poland
1466 Treaty of Thorn between Teutonic Order and Poland subjects western Prussia to Polish rule as Royal Prussia, whereas eastern Prussia remains under the Order’s control (October)
1471 Ladislaus Jagiellon (d. 1516) elected King of Bohemia
1479 Peace agreement in Olomouc between King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (d. 1490) and King Ladislaus Jagiellon of Bohemia (d. 1516) ends their war for the Bohemian crown, with both regents allowed to keep the royal title but Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia ceded to Matthias
1484 Death of Casimir Jagiellon, a future saint (canonised 1604) (4 March)
1490 Ladislaus Jagiellon (d. 1516) elected King of Hungary, but Prince John Albert of Poland (d. 1501) leads an army into Hungary, challenging his brother for the crown
1491 Ladislaus Jagiellon (d. 1516) and Maximilian I Habsburg, King of the Romans (d. 1519), conclude a peace treaty at Pozsony; John Albert and Ladislaus Jagiellon sign a peace accord at Kassa, whereby the Polish Jagiellonians acknowledge Ladislaus as rightful king of Hungary
1492 Death of King Casimir IV Jagiellon at Grodno in Lithuania (7 June); Prince John Albert elected king of Poland at Piotrków (August); Alexander Jagiellon (d. 1501) elected Grand Duke of Lithuania; Russian troops invade Grand Duchy of Lithuania, triggering a conflict which is not concluded until 1494
1493 Fryderyk Jagiellon (d. 1503) elected Archbishop of Gniezno and primate of Poland, and named a cardinal by Pope Alexander VI (d. 1503)
1494 Jagiellonian dynastic summit at Lőcse in Upper Hungary (today Slovakia)
1495 Alexander Jagiellon bans Jews from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and confiscates their possessions; interconfessional marriage of Alexander Jagiellon and Helena, daughter of Grand Duke Ivan III of Moscow, in Vilnius (15 February); Ladislaus Jagiellon (d. 1516) agrees to a three-year truce with Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II (d. 1512), subsequently extended until 1511
1498 First Ottoman raids on Polish soil; Poland, Hungary and Moldavia conclude a series of mutual peace treaties, agreeing to co-ordinate their anti-Ottoman strategies (November)
1501 John Albert dies at Thorn (June); Alexander Jagiellon (d. 1506) crowned King of Poland, having signed both a new act of union between Poland and Lithuania, and the Mielnica Privilege, which severely curtailed royal powers (12 December)
1502 Ladislaus Jagiellon (d. 1516) marries Anne de Foix-Candale (29 September); ‘Vladislav Hall’ at Prague Castle completed by Benedikt Ried (d. 1534) for Ladislaus Jagiellon in a blend of Gothic and Renaissance styles
1506 Sigismund I ‘the Old’ (d. 1548) elected King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
1509 Two-year-old Louis Jagiellon (d. 1526) crowned King of Bohemia in Prague
1514 Polish-Lithuanian army defeats Russian forces at Battle of Orsha (8 September)
1515 Double betrothal agreement in Pozsony and Vienna links Jagiellonians and Habsburgs: King Louis Jagiellon (d. 1526) to wed Mary of Habsburg (d. 1558), the younger sister of Charles V, and Louis’s older sister Anne Jagiellon (d. 1547) to wed Ferdinand of Habsburg (d. 1563), the younger brother of Charles V (July)
1516 Ladislaus Jagiellon dies in Buda (13 March), and his son, Louis Jagiellon, succeeds him on the throne
1518 Marriage of Sigismund I (d. 1548) to Italian princess Bona Sforza (d. 1557)
1519 King Sigismund I and his nephew, Albert Hohenzollern of Prussia (d. 1568), Grandmaster of the Teutonic Order, go to war in Prussia, sparking a major conflict; Sigismund commissions a Renaissance-style chapel at Wawel Cathedral in Cracow, a milestone in Polish architecture
1522 Sigismund Augustus (d. 1572) recognised as heir to Grand Duchy of Lithuania; Louis Jagiellon marries Mary of Habsburg (13 January)
1525 Lutheran revolts in Danzig and Elbing, in Polish Royal Prussia; rump Teutonic Order State becomes the secularized Duchy of Prussia, with the Grandmaster swearing fealty to the king of Poland at Cracow and becoming a Lutheran duke (10 April)
1526 Twenty-year-old King Louis Jagiellon slain at Battle of Mohács, in Hungary, fighting Ottoman armies (29 August); Ferdinand I Habsburg, Archduke of Austria, becomes King of Bohemia through his marriage to Anne Jagiellon (thereby establishing Habsburg rule over the Bohemian crown lands until 1918), whereas his parallel succession to the Hungarian crown is disputed by nobleman János Szapolysai (d. 1540)
1529 Sigismund Augustus formally elected Grand Duke of Lithuania and king of Poland vivente rege, aged nine, in an attempt to move closer towards a Jagiellonian hereditary succession
1533 Peace treaty between King Sigismund I ‘the Old’ of Poland (d. 1548) and Ottoman Sultan Süleyman I ‘the Magnificent’ (d. 1566), lasting to 1618
1540 King Sigismund I ‘the Old’ resigns as Grand Duke in favour of his son Sigismund Augustus (d. 1572)
1543 Sigismund Augustus marries Elizabeth Habsburg (d. 1545), daughter of Grand Duke Ferdinand of Austria (future Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I)
1548 Death of Polish king Sigismund I ‘the Old’
1550 Coronation of Barbara Radziwiłl (d. 1551), second wife of Sigismund Augustus, as queen of Poland, despite extensive political protests
1553 Sigismund Augustus, still childless, marries for the third time to Catherine Habsburg (d. 1572),
1555 Proposal by the Polish Diet to create a national church, independent of the papacy
1556 Bona Sforza leaves Poland for Italy
1558 Russian invasion of Livonia (approximately modern Latvia and Estonia) marks start of Livonian War between Russia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden, lasting until 1583 (January)
1561 Livonia becomes a vassal territory of the Polish monarchy
1562 Catherine Jagiellon (d. 1583), the youngest daughter of Sigismund I ‘the Old’ of Poland and Bona Sforza (d. 1557), marries Duke John Vasa of Finland (d. 1592), the future King John III of Sweden, at a ceremony in Vilnius (4 October)
1563 Vilnius Privilege grants equal rights to members of all Christian confessions in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (7 June); start of Livonian war between Sigismund Augustus and Russia (until 1570)
1569 Treaty of the Polish-Lithuanian Union signed in Lublin (1 July)
1572 Death of Sigismund Augustus at Knyszyn
1573 Polish senate names Anna Jagiellon (d. 1596), sister of the late king, as of Poland; Warsaw Confederation, establishing toleration for ; Henrician Articles, seeking to delineate power of newly elected king of Poland, the French prince Henri Valois (d. 1589)
1574 King Henri Valois of Poland returns to France, where he is elevated as King Henri III
1575 Election of Anna Jagiellon as queen of Poland
1576 Coronation of Anna Jagiellon and her husband, Stefan Batory (d. 1586), as joint kings of Poland
1578 King Stefan Batory makes war against Russia (until 1582), with Anna Jagiellon left running the royal court in Warsaw
1586 Death of Stefan Batory and abdication of his wife, Anna Jagiellon as joint king; Anna works successfully for the election of her nephew, Sigismund III Vasa (d. 1632)
1588 Adoption of the Third Lithuanian Statute, granting equal rights to nobility of all Christian confessions
1596 Death of Anna Jagiellon, Queen Consort of Poland and the final Jagiellonian to hold political power